Details of...
Scientific Name: Monarda didyma cvs.
Pronunciation: muh-NAR-duh DID-ih-muh
Common Name: bee balm
Family Name: Lamiaceae
Plant Type: Herbaceous perennial
Key ID Features: Stems square in c.s.; leaves opposite, serrated, petioles red, scented like bergamot orange; inflorescence a dense globular, terminal verticillaster (head-like with some cvs. superficially like coneflower), outer florets 3-4 cm long.
Course(s): HORT 1155, Level 2 Apprenticeship

Habit: Arching, Dense, Spreading, Upright
Form: Oval - vertical
Texture: Medium
Mature Size:
Height:0.7 - 1.3m
Spread:0.3 - 0.6m
Growth Rate:Fast
Origin: Canada - eastern, U.S. - northeast
Hardiness Rating: Zone 3: (-40 to -34 C)
Exposure: Full sun only if soil kept moist, Part sun/part shade
Soil/ Growing Medium:
Water Use: Moderate
Landscape Uses: Attract beneficial insects, Attract birds, Attract butterflies, Cut flower or foliage, Dried flower or fruit, Fall interest, Fragrance, Group or mass planting, Herb, Mixed shrub border, Perennial border, Summer interest, Tall background, Waterside planting
Additional Info: Google. Cultivars shown include M. 'Raspberry Wine', M. 'Cambridge Scarlet', and M. 'Colrain Red'.
bee balm
Leaf Morphology: Glossary
Form: Simple
Arrangement: Opposite
Texture/ Venation: Heavily veined, Pinnate venation, Soft flexible
Surfaces: Distinctive smell, Glabrous, Pubescent
Colour in Summer: Green, Dark-green, reddish veins
Colour in Fall: Red
Leaf(let) Terms:
Shapes: Ovate
Apices: Acute
Bases: Cordate
Margins: Serrate
Additional Info: 6-15 cm long x 3-8 cm wide, reddish veins

Inflorescence Type: Floriferous, Head-like, Verticillaster
Flower Morphology:Flowers perfect
Number of Petals:5
Corolla Shape:Funnelform
Ovary Position:Superior
Colour (petals): Showy, Red, (cv. 'Raspberry Wine' has wine-red flowers; white, pink and dark red cvs. exist)
Flower Scent: Sweet
Flower Time at Peak: Jul, Aug, Sep
Additional Info: Reddish bracts; florets 3-4 cm long

Fruit Type: Schizocarp
Fruit Colour: Brown
Fruiting Time: Sep, Oct
Additional Info: Not showy, Ovary separates into four tiny mericarps or "nutlets" that are enclosed in a persistent calyx

Bark or Stem Colour:
Organ Modifications: Rhizomes

Propagation: Seed, Division - below ground parts
Plant Care:
Other:Dead head spent flowers. Self spreading in moist areas; need morning sun and good air culrculation to limit powdery mildew.
Pest Susceptibility: Mildew, Rust, ( Pest resistant, Deer resistant, Rabbit resistant )
(WDH) Wark-Dumais House
(WLG) WoodLand Garden
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