Details of...
Scientific Name: Betula nigra
Pronunciation: BET-you-luh NYE-gruh
Common Name: river birch
Family Name: Betulaceae
Plant Type: Tree - deciduous
Key ID Features: Bark shaggy, peeling, red-brown; leaves diamond-shape, rhombic-ovate, biserrate, <8cm; catkins separate female (become conelike, 3-lobe scales) and male (<8cm, yellow-brown), early spring. Winter ID: exfoliating bark,yellow leaves.
Course(s): HORT 1155

Habit: Open, Twiggy, Upright
Form: Oval - vertical
Texture: Medium
Mature Size:
Height:15 - 22m
Spread:10 - 15m
Growth Rate:Fast
Origin: Canada - eastern, U.S. - northeast
Hardiness Rating: Zone 4: (-34 to -29 C)
Exposure: Full sun, Part sun/part shade
Soil/ Growing Medium: Bog, Well-drained
Water Use: Wetlands
Landscape Uses: Accent plant, Fall interest, Group or mass planting, Shade tree, Specimen plant, Wetland - bogs, Wildlife food, Winter interest
Additional Info: Google
river birch
Leaf Morphology: Glossary
Form: Simple
Arrangement: Alternate
Texture/ Venation: Soft flexible
Surfaces: Lustrous, Pubescent
Colour in Fall: Yellow
Leaf(let) Terms:
Shapes: Ovate, Rhomboidal
Apices: Acute
Bases: Cuneate
Margins: Double serrate

Inflorescence Type: Catkin (ament)
Flower Morphology:Monoecious plant
Number of Petals:0
Colour (petals): Not showy, Green-yellow
Flower Scent: None
Flower Time at Peak: Apr, May

Fruit Type: Samara
Fruit Colour: Brown
Fruiting Time: Jun, Jul
Additional Info: Female catkin release many tiny samaras
Bark Morphology: Showy, Papery, Shaggy, Multi-stem trunk, Single stem trunk
Bark or Stem Colour: Red, Brown, Black
Leaf Scar Shape:Crescent shaped
Organ Modifications: Ectomycorrhizae

Propagation: Seed, Softwood cuttings
Plant Care:
Pest Susceptibility: Anthracnose, Dieback, Fungal leaf spot, Leaf miner insect, Rust, Virus,
Specific Pests: (Low susceptibility to Bronze birch borer compared to other birch species).
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